I present biography here in my favorite form indicating the historical circumstances which, although not directly, but perhaps only indirectly influenced Heinrich’s life and work. I quote (and translate to English language) part of my thesis about the composer (click and see pages 17 – 28), where I used this method of observing history from different angles in the year 2011. A list of the sources is also part of my thesis.
- 4th February died in Rome Czech composer Josef Mysliveček.
- 11th March was born in Krasny Buk Anton Philipp Heinrich.
- Josef II. published new censorship law, tolerance patent, abolished serfdom, ordered subordinates spiritual state civil laws and began to cancel the „unnecessary“ church orders.
- In the U.S. was the last major battle of the American War for Indepence at Yorktown, where, U.S. Army won under the leadership of George Washington.
- W. A. Mozart settled in Vienna and built a friendly relationship with Haydn.
- 21st April Nostic´s theater was opened in Prague.
- In September, the Treaty of Paris was signed, in which Britain recognized the independence of the USA and gave them a large territory.
- Musician Thaddeus Adalbert Gottfried Palme (23. 4. 1765 – 2. 8. 1836) became a teacher in Krásná Lípa.
- 18th December was born Carl Maria von Weber.
- 19th January was presented in Prague Mozart’s Symphony in D major, called Prague.
- 28th May died Leopold Mozart, Wolfgang´s father.
- 29th October was premiere of Mozart´s Don Giovanni in Prague .
- In the USA began at the end of the year the constitutional ratification process.
- 30th April George Washington became a president of the USA.
- 5th MayFrench King Louis XVI convened General states to improve public finances.
- 14th July the attack on the Paris Bastille. The French Revolution began.
- 26th January was in the Vienna Court Theatre premiere of Mozart’s opera Cosi fan tutte.
- 20th February died Josef II., succeeded by Leopold II.
- 15th May introduced W. A. Mozart Piano Concerto in D major, called Coronation.
- In December J. Haydn traveled to London.
- Philadelphia City became the capital of the United States (until 1800).
- Population in the United States grew to 3,929,214 persons.
- 8th July Josef Haydn received an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford.
- 6th September was premiered at the coronation of Leopold II. King of Bohemia at the Nostic´s theater, Mozart’s opera Titus.
- 5th December died W. A. Mozart.
- 1st January Kentucky joined the USA.
- 29th February was born Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini (died 1868).
- 20th February died Leopold II., succeeded by Francis II. (until year 1835).
- 20th April France declared war on Austria.
- L. van Beethoven composed his Piano Concerto in B flat major.
- 31st January was born Austrian composer Franz Schubert (died 1828).
- 9th July died Edmund Burke, British politician, founder of conservatism, a critic of the French Revolution and supporter of the American Revolution. Friend of economist Adam Smith.
- 14th June was born František Palacký (died 1876).
- Nostic´s theatre bought by the Czech Estates, the building gets their name – Royal Estates Theatre.
- In the Lobkowicz castle in Roudnice nad Labem was premiered Haydn’s oratorio The Creation of the World
- 9th November Napoleon abused political coup and became the first consul.
- 14th December died George Washington.
- 2nd April Beethoven premiered his 1st Symphony in C major.
- 7th October died A. P. Heinrich´s uncle, who adopted him. Nineteen years old Anton became heir of the entire property, including the prosperous business. (First Report of Heinrich’s life).
- Was founded the Library of Congress USA
- The pressure from Napoleon began the process of mediatization, in which larger states absorbed smaller principalities.
- May – Napoleon invaded Hannover.
- Heinrich sold the house he inherited from his uncle.
- USA bought from France the entire territory of Louisiana.
- 11th December was born French composer Hector Berlioz (died in 1869).
- In Prague was established the first modern musical institution Unity of Musical Artists to support widows and orphans.
- In Ústí nad Orlicí was established Cecil Musical Unity.
- Francis II. became Emperor of Austria.
- Napoleon became Emperor of France.
- In Vienna was premiered Beethoven’s 3rd Symphony Eroica, which was originally dedicated to Napoleon (the dedication was later crossed out) .
- 29th July was born Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville, political philosopher, supporter of the American style of democracy.
- 21st October – the Battle of Trafalgar, Britain defeated France and gained supremacy on the sea.
- 2nd December was a battle of Austerlitz, in which Napoleon defeated the Coalition army and became a master of the land.
- Heinrich sailed from Lisbon to the USA. Before leaving, he founded a company which was responsible for managing his estate in the Czech lands.
- Napoleon´s pressure led to the emergence of the Rhine Society and consequently ceased to exist Holy Roman Empire.
- Began mutual blockade between Europe and Britain (with an impact on the USA), caused more significant problems in the economic situation.
- In Prague was established Union for Improvement of Music in Bohemia, which founded three years later the Prague Conservatory.
- 3rd February was born Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (died 1847).
- 12th February was born Abraham Lincoln (died 1865).
- 31st May died Joseph Haydn.
- October (Peace Treaty in Schönbrunn) – Austria lost 100,000 square kilometers territory’s 3.5 million residents, taxpayers, Austria had to pay France for war reparations. Lasts blockade between Britain and the Continent.
- 1st March was born composer Fryderyk Chopin (died 1849).
- 8th June was born composer Robert Schumann (died 1856).
- 5th August issued Napoleon the Trianon tariff (burden of colonial goods 50% duty), blockade sharpens.
- Heinrich traveled a second time to the USA. Unsuccessfully tried to establish trade with imported Czech glass. Became director of the Southwark Theatre in Philadelphia claimless on honorarium.
- In Boston started the tradition of Saturday Music Evenings organized by the Philharmonic Society of Boston.
- Heinrich celebrated his 30th birthday.
- In Prague was founded the Conservatory .
- From 1806 the Austrian government debt rose from 440 million to 1060 million goldens (name of the currency).
- 15th March was issued Imperial patent, „which reduced the value of banknotes to one-fifth of their nominal value“ – the Austrian financial bankruptcy. In Teplice and Rumburku were violent expressions of disagreement.
- 28th March was born Jan Nepomuk Neumann, Czech Catholic missionary, the fourth Bishop of Philadelphia (died 1860).
- 22nd October was born a composer Franz Liszt (died 1886).
- 7th November chief Tecumseh´s, efforts to create a Confederation of Indian Tribes end in a battle with the army of the Governor Harrison at Tippecanoe River.
- After Napoleon’s defeat in Russia was formed anti-French coalition, which included the Czech Army. Allied Commander was Marshal Schwarzenberg.
- On a ship from the United States returned to Bohemia Heinrich and his pregnant wife.
- 17th August Napoleon’s army invaded into Frýdlant (town).
- 18th August occupied Rumburk (town).
- 23rd August occupied Czech Lipa (town).
- Occupied city were plundered, had to pay the ransom.
- 16th – 19th October the „Battle of the Nations“ at Leipzig in which was Napoleon’s army defeated.
- After a difficult journey was born in Krasna Lipa Heinrich´s daughter Antony. The couple left her with Heinrich´s relative Joseph Hladek in Jirkov (town) and went through the warring Europe back to America. According to W. T. Upton probably planned to send for her someone later .
- After arrival into the USA Heinrich´s wife died.
- 6th April Napoleon abdicated.
- In Boston was founded Handel and Haydn Society, an organization that still exists.
- 12th November Heinrich organized a concert in Lexington (State Kentucky) in which was played, among others, the American premiere of Beethoven’s first Symphony in C major (17 years after the world premiere). During the concert, he performed as a conductor, violinist and pianist. The concert also introduced the Great Overture by Vojtěch Jírovec (1760 – 1850), former director of the Vienna Court Opera.
- Heinrich lived in a wooden hut in the woods near Bardtown in Kentucky. According to W. T. Upton, exhausted, sick, needed after all events gather mental and physical strength. We can say that in the interim spent surrounded by nature in Heinrich’s life was a fundamental milestone. He lost everything, including what was dearest to him, his beloved wife and daughter, who lived far away across the ocean. Everything he felt he put into the music. In Heinrich’s life began a new period, which was characterized by a composers diligence, enthusiasm for music and new sources of inspiration.
Due to significant change in the character of the next Heinrich´s life and related work, I will also change within the next section the character of selected information. I will deal less with European events and more with Heinrich´s music, compositional and organizational life in the USA.
- In May was published Heinrich’s first collection“ Dawning of Music in Kentucky, or the Pleasures of Harmony in the Solitude of Nature“ which contains 46 compositions on 269 pages. In this collection on the first page is The Prague Waltz. Other names are: The Fair Bohemian, Quick – Step Waltz, Yankee Doodle Waltz etc.
- In June, followed collection „The Western Minstrel,“ which contains, among other compositions: Gipsey Dance, Landler of Austria, or Philadelphia Waltz. Both collections published by Bacon and Hart in Philadelphia. In the preface he characterizes himself as „an American Composer“. Perhaps, he meant the vision of American identity about which Patrick Henry spoke already in 1776 (see my thesis, page 16).
- In Boston music magazine Euterpeiad, or Musical Intelligence of Boston, his songs and style were praised, Heinrich was called Beethoven of America.
- In August Heinrich sent his music and a letter to Charlotte Augusta, the wife of Emperor Francis I, in which he asked her for help for his daughter Antonia, living with his relative Joseph Hladek.
- We find his name on the programs of several concerts in Philadelphia, where his music was played with other Czech authors – Dusik and Jírovec.
- 11th March Heinrich celebrated his 40th birthday.
- 5th May died Napoleon Bonaparte.
1823 – 1826
- Heinrich’s stay in Boston.
- 29th May 1823 was published in the Boston Daily Advertiser article inviting listeners to a concert of works by A. P. Heinrich, J. Haydn, G. Rossini and others. Heinrich was called the first American composer and his style was praised .
- In the period up to 1826 Heinrich lived in Boston, his name appeared regularly in concerts of orchestral and chamber music with Haydn, Rossini, Kramar and others. He became part of Boston music high society. Collection of the songs The Sylviad, or minstrelsy of Nature in the Wilds of North America, which he dedicated to the Royal Academy of Music in London, was published. One of the compositions The Students March includes traditional American song Yankee Doodle and also the British national anthem God Save the King.
- 29th April – in the program of the Heinrich´s concert we find a song with a title Farewell Song – The Bohemian Emigrant.
1826 – 1831
- Heinrich’s stay in Great Britain
- Heinrich went to Britain in 1826, according to Howard probably to study music. When traveling by boat broke his finger and smashed priceless violin. Doctor Löwenbach described his work in London as a disappointment for Heinrich. He wrote, „started as a first violinist in the orchestra of Drury Lane Theatre and at Vauxhall Gardens. He lived modestly on milk and bread and composed.“ According to the poet Thomas Moore, who had the opportunity to get to know Heinrich’s style, his compositions were too harmonically complicated and therefore difficult to perform. Heinrich seemed to be too modern for his time.
- 26th March died Ludwig van Beethoven.
- Meeting with twenty-year-old Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy in London was personal and artistic experience for him. He was so impressed that later donated him several of his songs such as The Dance Rubezahl on the Schnnekoppe.
- In New Orleans was born composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk (died 1869).
- In 1830 the U.S. Congress approved a law requiring Indians to move west of the Mississippi.
- Heinrich composed a piece for orchestra „Pushmataha, and Venerable Chief of a Western Tribe of Indians“ about which Löwenbach wrote that it was the first music celebration of American Indians.
- In Prague, was founded Matice česká (Society for Czech literature). Important publication was five-part Jungmann´s Czech-German Dictionary.
- 11th March 1831 Heinrich celebrated his 50th birthday.
- Heinrich published in London newspaper a letter in which he asked the public for help for a group of Czech musicians called Prague Minstrels.
- In the autumn he returned back to the USA. He didn´t visit his daughter Antonia in Bohemia, according to Upton, due to financial reasons.
- He worked in Boston as organist at Old South Church.
- His name appeared again on Boston’s regular orchestral and chamber concerts with Weber and Rossini.
- He composed, among others, large, brilliant composition dedicated to F. M. Bartholdy The Rubezahl Dance on the Schneekoppe.
- He dedicated composition The First Labour of Hercules to twenty-year-old Ferencz Liszt.
- Heinrich traveled to Britain.
- 10th April in London he wrote a letter addressed to the director of the Drury Lane Theatre, with requests for work in the theater orchestra.
- In London, he worked as a violinist in the orchestra, music teacher and composer. According to W. T. Upton his style changed from Haydn to the style of Hector Berlioz. He was probably influenced by the London Philharmonic Society concerts, which he attended as a listener .
- By 1837 year he traveled around Europe, composed chamber and solo compositions, compositions with Indian themes (The Indian War Council, The Treaty of William Penn with Indians), compositions with spiritual themes (O Santa Maria, Adoramus te Christe) and a large symphony The Ornithological Combat of Kings, or The Condor of the Andes and the Eagle of the Cordilleras.
- Alexis de Tocqueville, political philosopher, supporter of American-style of democracy, published after a stay in the USA his fundamental work Democracy in America. Second part followed five years later.
- Heinrich came to Jirkov (town) in Bohemia to his relative Joseph Hladek, who raised his daughter, twenty-three-year-old, Antonia. He did not find her. Shortly before his arrival she had decided to travel to the USA and find him in Boston.
- 2nd August T. A. G. Palme, a musician and a teacher in Krásná Lípa, died.
- Heinrich went to Prague, where he met with Jan Nepomuk Vitásek, regenschori of St. Vitus Cathedral, the famous interpreter of Mozart´s music and Robert Fuhrer, director of the Prague Organ School.
- In July, at his concert at Gratz was performed a symphony The Combat of the Condor. Heinrich was not satisfied with interpretation due to the small number of players in both rehearsals and the concert. However, he had great success.
- Heinrich was the first American composer recorded in the Dr. Gustav Schilling´s Encyclopedia .
- 11th July the U. S. government established currency regulation, according to which the state land can be sold only for silver and gold.
- In June, in French Bordeaux were performed in Heinrich’s presence orchestral pieces The Condor and Fantasie Pocahonta.
- In the autumn of this year reached U.S. unemployment over 30%, also prices of food and clothing increased sharply. With the arrival of winter in New York City was 200,000 people „in the state of despair and hopelessness, no resources with which they could survive the winter, relying on charity.“ Peak of the crisis.
- In the same time, Heinrich arrived to New York. After his arrival he finally met his daughter. About the meeting he wrote to his friend Mussik to Prague: „it is not possible to describe the joy that filled our hearts for reunion“. It should be noted that their relationship remained alive, because we find in his correspondence letter of 11th June 1846, addressed to a friend Libby, the Boston merchant and jeweler, where he asked for, among other things,taking care of his daughter and granddaughter. He sent them to Boston because „granddaughter was pale and needed a change of air …“.
- In New York he worked almost until 1857. During this twenty-year period still composed, his works were a part of musical life in New York, taught privately , conducted orchestras and organized concerts . Some information from this period are listed below.
- Heinrich’s biography was recorded in the Fétis Music Encyclopedia.
- 12th April was held the founding meeting of the New York Philharmonic Society. This meeting was chaired by Heinrich.
- 16th June was held a „Grand Musical Festival“ in the Broadway Tabernacle, which was mainly devoted to Heinrich’s work. According to W. T. Upton it was the first American festival conceived as a big event, in number of musicians and choir members, corresponding to similar events being held in Europe. Festival was successful, in the Tabernacle were thousands of people. Heinrich was hailed.
- 6th May at the same place was a concert of his works again with excellent critics.
- 4th November died Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy.
- 14th November died Josef Jungmann.
- Heinrich composed a piece named „My Slavic brothers in Europe – Sorrow of Czechs!, Bohemia’s Funeral Honors to Josef Jungmann. Descriptively depicts the entire course of Jungmann’s funeral.
- 24th January was discovered gold in California. Gold Rush began.
- Revolutions in Europe.
- Big wave of immigrants came to the USA. In the music world, especially from Germany.
- On the Austrian throne began to reign Franz Josef I.
- 21st April was arranged in honour of Heinrich Grand Valedictory concert at New York’s Metropolitan Hall. J. T. Howard states that almost every significant artist was there. Orchestra led Heinrich together with conductor Theodor Eisfeld, representative of the German music emigration of 1848.
- Heinrich was 72 years old.
- At the beginning of the year Heinrich arrived in Prague.
- 22nd March appeared his composition The Pilgrim Fathers in concert at Žofín Academy.
- At the Conservatory’s concert was performed Symphony Maria Theresia.
- 3rd May was in the hall at Žofín shown with great success concert consisting of his major orchestral works. Dr. Löwenbach quotes Upton, who writes about this concert that here Heinrich had the first opportunity to hear his orchestral works in full version.
- There is an interesting review of Leopold Zvonař that followed this concert . Zvonař says that in Heinrich’s creation combines a lack of basic artistic culture (… untouched by any fundamental art culture) with a strong expression and logical musical diction.
- In September he visited his native village and friends of youth.
- In the following two years, he worked briefly in Dresden and again in Prague.
- Heinrich went back to New York.
- 6th November became Abraham Lincoln U.S. president.
- After several months of illness Heinrich died in the 3rd May.
- A. P. Heinrich was buried in Audubon´s family tomb.
- In the U.S. civil war started.